What methods are used to process the sound?

•August 24, 2012 • Leave a Comment

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Installation. Vypezanii Composed of one part of the record, insert d.puguyu, replacement, etc. pazmnozhenii Hazyvaetsya also pedaktipovaniem. All of Contemporary audio and video recording to some extent, podvepgayutsya installation.

Transformation of the amplitude. DURING performed by postseismic actions on signal amplitude, eccentricity, in the final analysis to the values ​​samplov multiplication by a constant factor (boost / cut), or temporal changes during function modulyatop (amplitude modulation). A particular case is the amplitude modulation envelope for Formation ppidaniya statsionapnomu sound of temporal evolution. Transformation of the amplitude are executed sequentially with the individual samples are, so they ppostoy in and is not necessary for realizing a large number of computations.

Frequency (spektpalnye) transformation of. Performed on frequency components of the sound. If we use spektpalnoe Degradation – FORMS representations for sound, eccentricity on gopizontali counted frequency, and on veptikali – the intensity of the frequency components, the frequency of transformation of many resemble the conversion of amplitude over spektpom. Happimep, filtration – strengthening or weakening of the determination of the frequency bands – is reduced to the superposition on spektp respective amplitude envelope. However, the frequency modulation Thus ppedstavit not – it looks like a shift of spektpa or specific sites in determination of time under the law. For realizing a frequency transformation of usually ppimenyaetsya spektpalnoe Degradation Fourier method, kotopoe tpebuet significant of resource. However, the algorithm is available quickly to transformation of Fourier (FFT, FFT), the eccentricity is in integer apifmetike and enabling it to younger models 486 pazvopachivat in pealnom temporal spektp s.pedney signal quality. DURING the conversion of frequency, k.pome that, by processing and subsequent tpebuet sveptka so temporal filtration in pealnom until pealizuetsya ppotsessopah for general use. Instead, there are a large number of signal ppotsessopov DIGITAL (Digital Signal Processor – DSP), eccentricity perform these opepatsii in pealnom temporal and through multiple channels.

The phase transformation of. Boil down to a constant phase shift of the signal or modulation of some functions or d.puguyu signal. Blagodapya that uses the human auditory appapat phase for determination DIRECTIONS to the sound source, the phase transformation of stepeozvuka can get the effect vpaschayuschegosya sound hopa and the like. VARIATIONS by phase shift gpadusov 90-180 (the latter is obtained ppostoy inveptipovaniem counts) pealizuetsya effect “dimensions” to the sound (Surround).

Temporal transformation of. Are appended to the original signal its copies shifted in on postseismic temporal values. DURING shifts by amounts spavnimye with periods may signal this to the phase transformation of ppevpaschayutsya; DURING small shifts beyond the limits pepida (roughly less than 20 ms), this has the effect of close to hopovomu (pazmnozhenie sound source), DURING large – the effects of reflection mnogokpatnogo: pevepbepatsii ( 20 .. 50 ms) and echo (50 ms).

Formative transformation of. Are a special case of frequency and with opepipuyut fopmantami – post a generic bands, vstpechalis in sounds ppoiznosimyh man. Each sound corresponds to a ratio of amplitudes and frequencies of several fopmant that determine tembp and pazbopchivost vote. By changing the parameters of fopmant can podchepkivat or gloss over individual sounds, change one vowel for d.puguyu, shift register is to vote, etc.


What methods are used for sound synthesis

•August 24, 2012 • Leave a Comment

Additive (additive). Based on Fourier utvepzhdenii that any periodic oscillations can ppedstavit as the sum of pure tones (sinusoidal oscillations of varying frequencies and amplitudes). This requires nabop of several sinusoidal uppavlenija paralleling with independent output signals for eccentricity summipuyutsya pezultipuyuschego signal. Ha This method is based ppintsip producing sound in the wind is reached or exceeded. Advantages of the method: allows you to get any of periodic sound and synthesis ppotsess hoposho ppedskazuem (change cutting to one of paralleling does not affect the rest of spektpa sound). The main drawback – for sounds complicated struct can potpebovatsya hundreds paralleling that is difficult and dopogo Accomplished.

Difference (subtractive). Ideologically ppotivopolozhen produced at the first. It is based on sound of generation rich spektpom (multiple frequency components) followed by filtration (separation of some components and the weakening d.puguyu) – this ppintsipu pabotaet pechevoy appapat person. The initial signals are commonly used meandp (right-angled, square), with a global variable duty cycle (the ratio of the positive pepioda polupepiodu) piloobpazny (saw) – normal and reversed, and tpeugolny (triangle), and postseismic types of noise (random fluctuations nepepiodicheskih) . The main opganov synthesis in this method are the filters uppavlyaemye: of resonant (Band) – on the joystick and the width ppopuskaniya band (band) and low-pass filter time (FHCH) with izmenyamoy speza frequency (cutoff). For all the filters also pegulipuetsya dobpotnost (Q) – kputizna growth or decline in the frequency of resonant. Advantages of the method – a relatively ppostoy realizing a range and a fairly large turn sintezipuemyh sounds. Ha this method postpoeno many studio and kontseptnyh sintezatopov (typical agents from – Moog). Hedostatok – for the synthesis of sounds with complex spektpom tpebuet uppavlyaemyh lot of the filters, and complex enough eccentricity dopogi.

Frequency-modulation (frequency modulation – FM). It is based on cross modulation frequency between multiple sinusoidal paralleling. Each of these paralleling fitted with its own fopmipovatelem amplitude envelope, the amplitude and frequency vibpato, imenuetchsya Operators. Different ways to connect multiple Operators, when the outputs of some uppavlyayut Workflow porphyry intrusions are known algorithm for synthesis. Algorithm is may include one or more Operators in series papallelno, sequential papallelno with reversed connections and combinations ppochie – give ppakticheski infinite number of possible sounds. Blagodapya ppostote realizing a DIGITAL, the method has received wide occurrence Prevalence in studio and kontseptnoy practice (typical agents from class sintezatopov – Yamaha DX). However, this method ppakticheski is difficult because most of the sound made by it, shall submit a noise-like oscillations, and only slightly change cutting to one of paralleling to clean tembp ppevpatilsya the noise. However, the method yields a wide opportunity for the synthesis of differently genus udapnyh sounds and – Various sound effects unattainable in other method pazumnoy complexity.

Samplepny (sample – vybopka). This method is recorded pealnoe sound (samples are), which are then at the right moment vosppoizvoditsya. To the sounds of differently height vosppoizvedenie uskopyaetsya or slows; DURING unchanged skoposti vybopki ppimenyaetsya paschety the Intermediate sample values ​​(inteppolyatsiya). To tembp sound DURING the pitch did not change too much, used several sound recordings chepez DETERMINATION Intervals (usually – chepez one or two octaves). In pannih samplepnyh sintezatopah sounds literally recorded on a tape recorder, a record of Contemporary ppimenyaetsya DIGITAL sound. The method allows to obtain an arbitrarily exact likeness of sound pealnogo the tool, but this tpebuet fairly large amounts of memory. With d.pugoy stopony, record sounds natural DURING only those same parameters, DURING eccentricity it was made – when you try to, for instance, she ppidat d.puguyu amplitude envelope of natural falls drastically. To reduce the amount of memory tpebuemogo ppimenyaetsya looping samplov (looping). In this case, only records kopotkoe Quaternary sound tool, then it stands s.pedney phase with established (sustained) sound, which was then DURING vosppoizvedenii povtopyaetsya those pop up until the note is enabled (by pressing the key), after releasing vosppoizvoditsya terminal phase. Ha fact, this method can not be called a rule with complete fusion – it skopo vosppoizvedeniya-writing method. However, of Contemporary sintezatopah based on it vosppoizvodimy sound can podvepgayutsya VARIOUS by processing – modulation filtpovaniyu, adding new harmonics, sound effects, which are the result of sound can ppiobpetat sovepshenno tembp new, sometimes quite unlike pepvonachalny. In fact, the combination turns tpeh main methods of synthesis, where the main signal is used the original sound. Typical of this class of agents from sintezatopov – E-mu Proteus.

Table-wave (wave table). Variety samplepnogo method when not all recorded sound as a whole, and its individual phases – attack, initial decay, and a tail s.pedney phase damping, which allows to reduce drastically the amount of memory for tpebuemy hpaneniya samplov. These phases are recorded on postseismic frequencies DURING postseismic conditions (soft or drastic udap by pressing poyalya, of varying the position of lips and tongue DURING igpe saxophone, etc.) are the result of the family to give one the tool sounds. DURING vosppoizvedenii these phases fit, CL compiled, allowing a relatively small volume DURING samplov get enough large turn spektp postseismic sounds the tool, and most importantly – significantly increase vypazitelnost sound vybipaya, eg, according to the force on a key udapa sintezatopa not only the desired amplitude envelope as does any sintezatop but necessary phase of the attack. The main PROBLEM of this method – the difficulty soppyazheniya postseismic phase porphyry intrusions with porphyry intrusions to pepehod vosppinimalis not listening, and the sound was solid and neppepyvnym. Therefore, this class sintezatopy quite scarce and dopogi. This method is also used in audio sintezatopah ka.pte pepsonalnyh komp’yute, but its possible there is much upezany. In particular, almost never ppimenyayut drafting sound of several phases, reducing method to ppostoy samplepnomu, although almost everywhere there is a possibility of more than one papallelnogo vosppoizvedeniya samples are inside a single note.

Method of physical modeling (physical modelling). Is the physical modeling of PROCESSES, defines the sound pealnogo the tool based on its set of parameters (eg, for skpipki – ROCKS de.peva, structure varnish geometpicheskie size is, matepial stpun and bow, etc.). Due to the complexity of accurately modeling kpayney even ppostoy tool and huge volumes of calculation method has pazvivaetsya slowly, studio and in levels of experimental samples sintezatopov. It is expected that, since its evolution enough it will replace the known methods of synthesis of acoustic sounds Tool belt, leaving them with only the problem of synthesis is not substantiated in vstpechalis tembpov.

WaveGuide technology actively pazpabatyvaemaya in Stenfopdckom Univepcitete ppimenyaemaya and finally arrived in neckolkih ppomyshlennosti Electron poyaley models, eg, fipmy Baldwin. Ppedctavlyaet coboy varieties fizichectogo modeling, DURING eccentricity modelipyetcya propagation fluctuations ppedctavlennyh dickpetnymi otcchetami by ctpyne (of one-dimensional modeling) and pezonancnym povephnoctyam (dvymepnoe modeling) or in bulk pezonatope (tpehmepnoe). DURING this poyavlyaetcya POSSIBILITY modelipovat also nonlinear effects nappimep ydap hammer and kacanie ctpyny dempfepom and vzaimnyyu ctpyn telecommunication and telecommunication horizontal and vertical modes.

A short acoustic dictionary

•August 24, 2012 • Leave a Comment

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· Absorption (absorbent) – absorption, for example, the absorption of sound energy.

· Acoustic sound spectrum (acoustical spectrum) – a set of sinusoidal components of complex sound set with the amplitude and frequency of these components.

· Amplitude – the maximum instantaneous (peak) value, which reaches some physical quantity, performs a sinusoidal oscillation.

· Domestic noise – the sound of any objectionable or in the circumstances for the person.

· White Noise (purenoise, WeiBes Rauschen) – the noise spectral density is independent of a specific range of frequencies (white noise – not necessarily random).

· Beats – arise when two sine waves with close frequencies. They are periodic. The fundamental frequency of the beats in this case is equal to the difference between the frequencies of the interacting superimposed sinusoidal oscillations.

External noise (ambientnoise) – noise, characterized the intensity and duration of sounds of different sources.

· Wave – spatial and temporal change of state of the environment, which can be represented as a one-way move it. There are transverse and longitudinal waves.

· Time of reverberation – reverberation time (reverberation time, Nachhallzeit) – this time from off the sound source to reduce the density of acoustic energy or intensity of sound to reduce the density of acoustic energy or intensity of sound to one millionth of a share of its initial value, ie, up to 60 dB (DIN 52 212).

· Forced vibrations occur under the influence of the exciting alternating external physical force. The frequency of oscillation is determined by the frequency of forced excitation.

· Pitch (pitch, tonwert) – a term used to describe the character of the sound frequency.

· Decrement – the main value in the calculation of attenuation. Decrement – speed damping characteristics of the two oscillations following each other in the same direction.

· Dissipation (scattering) – transition energy of ordered motion into energy of random motion of particles (heat).

· Diffuse field (diffuse field, diffuses Schallfeld) – field with a uniform sound pressure generated from the multiple reflections from interfaces.

· Wavelength (wavelength, Wellenlange) – the distance between the two closest points of the waves that are shifted in phase by one full period.

· Good quality – a dimensionless quantity, the maximum value of the transfer function.

· Attenuation – a measure of the energy loss in an oscillating system in the transformation of one form of energy into another.

· Sound (sound, Schall) – mechanical vibrations and elastic waves that propagate in solids, liquids and gases, mainly in the audible frequency range (16-20000 Hz).

· A sound wave (acousticalwave) – sound wave propagation is the process variable disturbance in an elastic medium, the sound vibrations are called oscillatory motion of the particles of the medium under the influence of this disturbance.

· Sound power. Sound waves carry sound energy. The total amount of energy that the sound source radiates into space per unit of time, characterizes the sound power source. Sound power is usually defined in Watts. Some specific sound sources can be characterized by the following approximate figures:
Whispers – 10-9 Tues
Conversation – 10-5 Tues
Scream – 10-3 Tues
Big band – 10 W
Large turbojet aircraft – 105 W
It should be noted that the acoustic output transducer carried less electrical power. Efficiency Speaker Dynamic type is small and is a few percent.).

· Sound Pressure (Pa) (acoustic pressure, Schalldruck) – the variable part of the pressure that occurs in the environment when the acoustic wave passes.).

· The sound field (Sound field, Schallfeld) – a set of space-time distribution of the quantities characterizing the acoustic perturbation considered.

· The sound spectrum – the dependence of sound pressure (air or structural noise) on the frequency. Appears in the sound spectrum, which is set by the frequency analysis.

· Sound insulation – reducing the impact of the sound by installing reflective (absorbing) wall between the sound source and the place of exposure.

· Sound absorption. Loss of sound energy in the fall of the sound waves and their propagation in a material medium.

· Index articulation problems associated with the assessment of speech recognition, perceived directly. As a result of increased noise voice communication can be significantly hampered. Masking effect of background noise has a positive significance. Broadband noise is used, for example, in order to prevent unauthorized persons to listen to the talks.

Intelligibility is defined (in% terms) of correctly heard and understood participants in the experiment of linguistic units.
Since the transmission of speech basic physical parameters are determined easier than subjective, psychological, developed methods to use the physical quantity, which cause a good correlation with the parameters of intelligibility RFID, obtained by the survey.
This quantity is the articulation index (AI), the proposed French and Steinberg. They suggested that the speech recognition is proportional to the average difference between the peak levels of speech and masking noise levels (noise interference) in 20 bands selected on the basis of their equal contribution to speech intelligibility. In the frequency range from about 200 to 6000Gts. Levels of speech in each of these bands have a dynamic range of 30 dB. For the calculation of the articulation index (AI) use categories conditional equivalent levels of speech. Differing by 6 dB.

· The sound intensity (W/m2) – The ratio of the incident to the surface of the sound power to the area of the surface.

· Interval – the ratio of frequencies of the two tones.

· Interference – the principle of superposition of independent waves. At any point of the instantaneous value of the resultant wave is the sum of the instantaneous values ​​of each of the waves.

· Swing (oscillation, Schwingung) – change in time value in relation to a particular selected its value.

· Kolbanev and vibratsiyae. Terms used to denote the change of any physical quantity, more or less regularly recurring time and changing direction.

· The oscillation speed – the speed of the vibrational motion of the particles of the medium. Perception of vibration at low frequencies is roughly proportional to the particle velocity.

· Particle velocity – the instantaneous value of the velocity of a particle moving in the direction of the velocity fluctuations.

· The sound absorption material – the ratio of the absorbed energy to the incident sound energy. Characteristics of a material’s ability to absorb sound waves varies from 0 to 1 (sometimes measured as a percentage from 0 to 100%). Sound absorption coefficient at zero all the sound energy is reflected surface of the material. 1 – means that all the sound energy absorbed by the material.

· Loss factor – characteristic of dissipative properties of the system, defined as the ratio of vibrational energy dissipated during one period of oscillation to all the potential energy stored in the system. In other words, the loss factor characterizes the rate of damping in the system. In mechanical systems, the loss factor can theoretically vary from 0 to 1. Loss factor of zero, meaning that if a system to initiate short-term momentum, variations in it not ever die out. Loss factor of 1 means that the fluctuations in such a system will go out for one period.

· The logarithmic decrement – the natural logarithm of the ratio of two limiting values ​​of the amplitudes of its own vibrations, separated in time by one period.

· Microphone (microphone, Mikrofon) – electroacoustic transducer that responds to sound waves and produces the equivalent electrical signals.

· Fashion fluctuations – the characteristic distribution of displacement oscillation system, when the displacement of each area of its surface – simple harmonic motion with the same frequency. In a system with many degrees of freedom can exist multiple modes.

· Power Sound (Sound power, Schalleistung) – the energy transferred by a sound wave through the given surface per unit time.

· The continuous spectrum (continuous spectrum, kontinuierliches Spektrum) – wave spectrum, the frequency components are distributed continuously in the frequency range.

· Continuous noise (continuous spectrum) – the noise, the intensity of which remains the indefinite period of time or a specified period of time.

· Octave – a unit frequency interval. Octave is the interval between two frequencies f1 and f2, the logarithm of which is equal to one (log (f2/f1) = 1), which corresponds to the difference between the frequencies f1 and f2 twice.

· Octave band – frequency range, where the highest frequency of twice the lowest frequency.

· Octave range. Sound level is determined and displayed in the band width of an octave. The average (geometric mean) frequency octave 1 formula recommended midrange octave: 31.5, 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 Hz.

· Dangerous noise – acoustic waves in the ear, resulting in a certain part of the population there is a change in the threshold of audibility.

· Period – the time in which one takes a full swing.

· Peak SPL (peaksound pressure, Spitzenschalldruck) – the absolute maximum instantaneous sound pressure occurring in a given time period.

· The hearing threshold (borderline of audibility, Horschwelle) – the minimum effective sound pressure level, sound, stimulating auditory sensation in the given conditions listening.

· Psychoacoustics – the study of the impact of sound on the human psyche (reaction perception, irritability, fatigue).

· Distribution of sound. Sound waves from a point source of sound, generally spherical front. In an open field sound pressure decreases with distance from a point source of sound is 6 dB for each doubling of distance.

· Reverb (reverberation, Nachhall) – the process of attenuation of sound in a room after tripping (termination) of the sound source. Reverb is characterized reverberation

· Resonance (resonance, Resonanz) – a phenomenon of increasing the amplitude of forced oscillations in an oscillatory system, occurs at the frequency of the periodic external action to one of the natural frequencies of the system. The nature of the resonance depends strongly on the properties of the oscillating system.

· Resonance fashion – characteristic vibroacoustic properties of mechanical or acoustic system, directly related to the natural resonance frequency. Fashion shows the type (shape) of the oscillations at the natural frequency of the system (at the natural frequencies.) When the frequency of natural oscillations and forced vibration frequencies (excitation frequency).

· The resonant frequency – the frequency of the resonator, in which the fluctuating value reaches its maximum value.

· Pink noise (pink noise, Rosa-Rauschen) – noise, which has a constant energy in the octave band, ie each octave band contains the amount of sound energy, which is inversely proportional to frequency.

· Speed ​​of sound – speed of sound wave propagation in space.

· Natural frequency – the number of oscillations per second. mechanical and acoustic systems, characterization of mechanical properties of the vibro-acoustic or acoustic (air volume) design. This is the frequency at which the amplitude and dramatically increases dramatically.

· The natural frequency (allowedfreguency, Eigenfreguenz) – natural vibration frequency of the vibrating system.

· Natural oscillations. Natural frequency (natural frequency) depends only on the properties of the oscillating system.

· Connecting oscillatory systems. If two vibrational systems are connected mechanically by mass or elasticity between them is a periodic exchange of energy.

· Dream (sone, Sone) – volume perceived by a person, submit a pure tone at 1000 Hz having SPL of 40 dB.

· The range of oscillation – a collection of simple harmonic oscillation, which can be resolved this complex oscillation.

· The ability to sound insulation – acoustic characteristics of the material or structure, defined as the ratio of the sound energy incident on the structure to last through it (the structure), is measured in decibels (R = 101.g.Wpad/Wprosh)

· Standing waves. Standing waves are the result of interference between two waves moving in opposite directions with equal length, frequency and amplitude. Amplitude of the standing wave is constant at any point; oscillation nodes (zero amplitude) and antinodes (maximum amplitude) are the same. Standing waves occur when a wave is reflected from the barrier, provided that the impedance environment is significantly different from the values ​​of the wave reflector.

· Octave range (1/3 octave spectrum of sound.) Sound level is determined and displayed in a strip in the third octave. The width of the band, as well as the bandwidth of the octave range, referred to the center frequency is constant.

· The angular frequency – the frequency multiplied by 2π (ω = 2πf).

· The specific acoustic impedance Z (Pa.s / m) defines transmission properties of the medium in relation to sound waves.

· Ultrasound – mechanical vibrations that are above the range of frequencies audible to the human ear.

· Level (level, Pegel) – logarithm of the magnitude of its value selected for the level of the comparison.

· The volume level – the comparative level of subjective perception of the volume, measured in backgrounds. The volume level of the sound of a single pure tone or noise is determined by subjective comparison with a standard sound. The difference in volume between 8 and 10 background perceived as a doubling of loudness.

· Noise level (sound pressure level, Schalldruckpegel) – logarithm of the pressure ratio of sound to the selected level of comparison, multiplied by 20 (the pressure level comparison is typically 2.10-5 N / m). Sound pressure is to be understood as an effective rms sound pressure.

· Sound level (dB (A)). (Unit noise) sound level in A-weighted, depending on the sound frequency, often used to describe the sound source at a distance d = 1 m.

· The sound power level (dB (A)) – Units of noise. Sound power of a single sound source is estimated sound power level. It is equal to tenfold the decimal logarithm of the ratio of power is being computed to the threshold of sound power.

· The power level (power level, Leistungspegel) – logarithm of the ratio of power to the selected level of comparison, multiplied by 10.

· Noise level (noise level, Gerauschpegel) – characteristic of sound pressure level.

· Filter (filter, Sieb) – a device for the selection (or suppression) of the electrical signal in a given frequency band. By construction, the filters can be passive – do not require a power source, active – requires a power supply, digital – based on digital technology.

· Background (phon, Phon) – background is called a unit of volume. The volume level is n the background, if the average listener appreciates it as an equal to the volume of the tone with a frequency of 1000 Hz and a pressure level in decibels n. Background as the volume, as well as the decibel is not a unit of measurement, and is twenty times the decimal logarithm of the ratio of sound pressure.

· Cycle (cycle, zyklus) – a periodic sequence of values ​​of magnitude for the period.

· Frequency (Hz) (freguency) – frequency function, periodic in time, called the inverse of the period.

· The oscillation frequency (Hz) (freguency of oscillations, Schwingungsfreguenz) – the number of complete cycles of vibration per second.

· Noise (noise, Larm) – sounds random nature of a continuous spectrum, formed a large number of component frequencies with different amplitudes.

· Ambient noise (ambient noise, Umgebungsgerausch) – the total noise in this situation, in this period of time, usually consisting of a noise (sounds) from many near and distant sources.

· Sound Level Meter (acoustimeter, Gerauschmesser) – sound level meter called shumoizmeritelny instrument designed to measure the level of sound and has a frequency response of A, B, C, D, Linear and temporal characteristics of the F, S, I, Peak. or some of them.

· Broadband noise (broadband noise, Breitbandgerausch) – noise, whose energy is distributed over a wide frequency range (more than one octave).

· Exposure of noise (noise exposure, Larmexponierung) – sound stimulation that affects the human ear or a person for a certain period of time (for example, shift, day, working life).

· Acoustic Emission (Emission of waves, Wellenaussendung) – radiation of elastic waves generated by the restructuring of the internal structure of solids.

· Echo (echo, Echo) – reflected with a delay wave.

General principles of sound amplification in concert halls

•August 24, 2012 • Leave a Comment

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“Setting of small and medium-sized rooms”

Amplification system designed to deliver clean, clear sound in the right dynamic and frequency range with sufficient volume to all Audience seats, listening to music and speech programs probably more comfortable, create a sense of presence.

According to their function room, which set PA system, differ from each other. For example, in discos focus on the dance floor. The most important thing to create a uniform sound field over the heads of the dancers play the entire dynamic and frequency range of musical programs, and restrictions on the power used in sound reinforcement systems are almost nonexistent.
In the restaurants and night clubs PA system must have some flexibility. They have to translate to the same as the background, chamber, symphonic, blues, rock, disco and other music, as well as “live” musical performances. The same flexibility should have PA system and in concert halls.

Each room, depending on the architectural features and functionality requires an individual approach to the design of sound reinforcement systems. In this paper we propose to consider the characteristics of building sound reinforcement systems, based on the size of the hall, and not on functionality, suggesting that the premises can be used as multi-purpose.

With increasing space problems clear (legible) sound and the level of the sound pressure, and hence the volume of playback of music and speech programs are growing. This is due to the fact that the further away from the sound source (speaker loudspeaker system) is a listener, the lower the volume level playing program. In space, where there is no reverb, such as on the street, the sound pressure level is reduced by half (6 dB) with distance from the source to the double distance.

The second problem that arises in this reverb playback applications specific to each room. If the listener is located near the speaker, it is in “direct field”. This field is where the sound is coming from the speaker louder reflected sound. At a distance from the speaker sound reflected from the floor, ceiling and walls of the room, louder sound coming directly from her.

This is where the problems begin.
In reverberant space is always a point where the reflected sound is stronger than a straight line. To be sure, the sound pressure level tends to a constant value in reverberant (diffuse) field, no matter where the listener. The distance from the speaker system on which the level of direct and reflected sound are called “critical distance.” When the listener is in a reverberation field, the sound he hears, Japan is largely a reflection from the floor, ceiling and walls of the room and only a small portion of it goes directly from the speaker. All these reflections reach the listener’s ear in a slightly different time periods, with a few more sound pressure than the direct sound. As a result, the listener is in the field of reverb, lost intelligibility and clarity of sound.

Reverberant field problem can be solved in two ways.
First – this is to change the shape and decoration reflecting elements of the walls and ceiling of the room. But in practice, change the interior of the premises in this way is almost impossible.
The second way – it is right to design complex sound reinforcement for him to overcome the reverberation field in a room.

The main focus in the design of sound reinforcement system, designed to work in a particular area should be given the choice of speakers. Speakers with a narrow radiation pattern sometimes referred to “ranged” (not standardized technical terms and jargon). The terms “long-range combat,” “melee” characterize how far the speakers can deliver clean, clear sound. It depends on the variance. To describe the principle of such systems can take an example from everyday life. Imagine a normal hose for watering. The water in the hose is suitable for top on its end with a constant pressure, and nozzle itself determines how water flows. If the nozzle is wide, the water will not pour, but if you change the nozzle on a narrower or hold the hose, the water will pour much further.

The same thing happens with sound. For example, if the midrange driver to connect with a wide mouthpiece, the system will “near or mid fight.” If its connected to the mouthpiece of a narrow-angle, you get a system of “ranged”. Using horn system with a narrow radiation pattern can solve the problem of room reverberation medium and large sizes. By increasing the sound pressure level of the direct sound are making that material music and speech programs became more clear and legible. System “ranged” are used not only to increase the sound pressure level, but also to focus on the sound of distant sound Audience field, with the sound pressure level of the direct sound will be reflected above. And this is the problem reverberation fields.

Consider the specific sound different size rooms and describe the public address system, which could be used in them.

Conditionally divided premises considered, depending on their size into three types – small with a volume of 300 m3, with average volume of 900 m3 and a large volume of 2700 m3. It should be noted that with such a difference in the size of the premises power sound reinforcement needed to maintain a certain sound pressure level (SPL) in reverberant field will be significantly different.
Consider a simple example, where we assume for convenience that the same sound system will work in a room with a capacity of 300 and 3000 m3. If the sound reinforcement system with a capacity of 100 W can provide in a small room average sound pressure level of 100 dB, the need for a large area is 10 times more power (about 1000 watts) to produce the same sound pressure level of 100 dB.
As desired acoustic power system is highly dependent on what music and speech programs, and how loud to articulate in a particular area. In Fig. 1 shows the average sound pressure levels in some typical cases.

Sound pressure level at a normal conversation at a distance of 30 cm is about 70 dB. For most people, the level of 120 dB causes pain. Sometimes live rock band sound pressure level reaches 115-120 dB and above. In what follows we assume that a given parameter in the halls of a sound pressure in the Audience seats, and the calculation shall be necessary to ensure that the sound pressure sound power emitters. The electric power is determined with the efficiency and sensitivity of the speakers.

Prom DJ Springfield MA

•August 22, 2012 • Leave a Comment

Free Consultation With Local Prom / Party DJ
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Mobile DJ-site – for your young adults! This can be in the dance hall, in a cafe or on a rented boat … Order DJ with equipment available to the prom and very inexpensive! Please note, if you wish to order a DJ at graduation, first give us the date of the prom, then specify location. Have a DJ hit with the young music on your final evening!

Holding DJ Party at the prom

This is always a little sad holiday one of the most traditional in schools – with a youthful spontaneity breaks all traditions!

In the final teacher, as usual, in front of the student – but today he forgot about assessments and as a partner in the dance more worried you.
The director suddenly for some reason are not easily reproachfully, and warm words for the most egregious offenders.
Today, on the eve of separation, all – parents, teachers and young adults – especially trying to be as close as possible to each other. Graduates seek to pass more good energy to charge them with heat to warm a bit in the future unknown road. And through the years, when the school days will see the already hazy, final dash of the holiday for a long time will be clearly visible, because it is important that the memories were pleasant.

DJ for Graduation – How to organize a graduation party?
Adults want to show the program was humorous and original, and at the same time, do not disdain the noble traditions of the classics. Young participants in the evening do not hope that they can expect a fun party or tusovka – for this to their services is abundant nightlife, where you can successfully continue the celebration.

However, is it necessary?

A professionally arranged party DJ brightens any holiday – you can not do without one!
It can prepare professionals for whom the organization of school events – a busy professional.

A skilled DJ , a rich repertoire of music, modern hits discos, high quality sound and lighting equipment – all of it is now possible to arrange not only the club. young adults do not want to leave their home school until the morning, which will certainly be happy and parents.

Who was the first DJ or “How It All Began”

•August 22, 2012 • Leave a Comment

Free Consultation With Local Wedding / Party DJ
Web form shortcut for getting a wedding and party DJ!

DJ History:

From 1975-1976. Komsomol was inspired by visits to capitalist countries to the Soviet Union brought a disco. A year later, in 1977-1978., With the permission of the Komsomol series went first official party of the district, then the regional scale. In the early 80’s disco played in the life of the same role as the progressive cinema in the 60’s or youth theaters in the 70’s.
Historical conditions

DJ Climbed into the business step by step: first audio collection replenish flexible plates of Horizon magazine, then proznali of crusts were zahazhivat in recording booths, where for 4 kopecks. / Min. Coil or tape recorded, with other carriers rarely played. The stalls were full of varied, but always officially sanctioned, music: here you, please, twist and shake, then rock and disco: Queen, Deep Purple, Boney M, Arabesque, Modern Talking, Eruption, Dschinghis Khan, Ottawan. Banishment for the group to meaningless trifle style, vaguely reminiscent of the fascist (Kiss), aggression against the Soviet Union.

Began to develop ultimate solution – a huge reel tape timbre that can record only in one direction, ie, two lanes instead of four. Their main advantage to quickly rewind the tape and find the right tracks. They were replaced by cassette recorders, first overseas and then domestic. Since the quality of play of recent poor, working up to the last reels. Even then, there was a struggle for the sound quality. Sound was a lot of unimportant village tantsulek, and drop down to this level, meant to cast a shadow on the reputation.

Because of the scarcity of inventing incredible tricks: scratch on films mix on tape, soundtrack Pinocchio, jammed, chewed, rubbed.
Difficulties arise with light equipment. The ultimate dream of Polish or Hungarian settings received is not all accounted for by tinkering: from traffic lights, flashing lights of police and other materials collected are of little use running lights, projector and four ramps with darting lights. All-Union Theatrical Society purchased ultraviolet strobes.

The main venue for dancing and entertainment for a long time to stay home and cultural centers, schools, dormitories, youth centers, libraries, movie theaters (Perikop), a cafe (Milk), stood apart disco leader on the cycling track in Krylatskoye (early 80’s. ) packed at the time very powerful.

No advertising and information support activities not required. Rumor about upcoming dances by word of mouth echoed instantly. Number of applicants two to three times the capacity of the room, designed for 500-600. Do not Let a person under 18 years old, so very resourceful hand in their passports were transported birthday. Over time, age group has narrowed, but then came to what is called the old and young people from 18 to 40 years. And indeed cultural rest: dancing, drinking, having fun, and almost fought. Police were not required, rest with armbands guarded Komsomol vigilantes input was terrible off space, against which any modern pale face control.

Tickets looked originally: secret stamp stamped ordinary pieces of paper with the name of the party, time and cost (50 kopecks)., Or cut in half cards, and the input is connected, the same – pass. Money from the entry in the accounts settled community centers.

However, the organizers and the business flourished. Komsomol members were allowed to do the disco bars. They buy alcohol, cakes, fruit, and then sold to rest with a good broth. Taxation of such activities are not subject to, the musicians do not pay taxes, do not pay royalties to authors.
Heroes of the times

Because of the information vacuum created by the Iron Curtain, had to invent the bicycle, which was obtained by the least ugly and certainly bizarre. Disco as the process was like a skit, a mixture of dance with urapatrioticheskimi agitation.

That was a generation of self-taught. For specialized training courses cultural workers at the Moscow House of amateur creativity almost no one came, and with good reason. Graduate out there, not only with a diploma Head discos, but also politically correct views on the international situation and the class struggle between labor and capital, in which the leading role was assigned to the working class. In fairness, it should be noted that along with the garbage taught and did the right thing – stage speech, the history of disco and rock ‘n’ roll, etc. Peel it possible to produce in the culture official rate of about 60 p. a month.

Of course, if such activities are not seen enthusiasm: young adults abused, kicked, veterans of the Great Patriotic wrote angry letters to the top. Word DJ or deejay became abusive. One day on one boat, the captain complained Exec: What kind of people are they? All the work to push buttons. And strangely called holding ki

While not competing personalities and creative teams, people were not on the DJ name, and the group, which included directly the disc jockey, svetovik man, tray coil, dancers, sympathetic, a total of 20 people were recruited.

Such mass justify themselves, each received a role in the evening’s program. Earlier discos were not form sets, and original musical performances. Took up the story, for example, from the cartoon, replaced their own native songs and played during the presentation of the dialogue between the characters. It looked quite fun, because reminded the general go-go: dancing and all, first of all, the DJ. After each song, leading in a humorous way to give the information: what it is, when and where she then announced and ottantsovyvalsya next track, and then there was cognitive minute, slide show and competitions, and again sounded the next song. Non-stop, in slang disco baths were rare and were held for half an hour before closing disco, ie from 21.30 to 22 hours. Few who were allowed to work until midnight. But claims it does not, because the music is just enough for two hours.

In the Soviet Union formed a few creative unions (apart by more recent, from early to late) with a unique face, audio, finds. In Istra region Disko7 (April 1, 1980, the oldest disco Russia, Andrei statue (DJ Vasilych)), in Kuibyshev – Canon (Alexander Astrov, about 1982), Kaliningrad Phonograph (1982), Shchelkovo disco Rain (1983 ., Alexander Kolestnikov), Podolsk Interview (1984, Oleg Sharapov Vladimir Sosnin (DJ Valdai)) Title Three of twenty three (1985, Alexander Zabolotin Alexander Lavrikov), Moscow Easy Boom (Sergei Autumn and Victor Savyuk , 1986), Studio Class (DJ Lantern and Lika Star, 1986), a prominent – Hammer and Sickle (1 April 1989). Simultaneously worked with them and singles (disc jockeys, placed by more recent) – Sergei Minaev (1980), Phillipich (Sergei Filippovich 1982), Oleg Ojo (his first DJ fees received in 1983 in the resort town of Como Italy, learned DJ Lantern and Glory Finist), Igor Siliverstov (1985)

In 1985, Canon has recorded and released on a magnetic coil first major program of disco rap (rap was then called Jaunty hex on rhythmic basis). Text to music by Alexander Astrov Marathon chant and other comrades of the team. They have provoked an avalanche of serious disco mixes. Such things have already begun to distribute almost everything.

Masters of all this: a branded phonograms cut out all but the instrumental passages that are superimposed own recitative. Then, mix it into the program, and get a full dance act. Product flow to cheer throughout the Union. Magnitoalboma delivery in distant corners of vast country provided pirates glorified thereby teams in the country. For that they bow at the waist, as no radio or on TV is not sound. Public fully trust the tastes of copyright violators, who never fails. Glory pirated products far exceeded approved censorship toothless and fresh transmission.

In 1987 Disko7 made at the time the bomb – a program Disko7 Institute rap, dance music industry turned over the country. Two years later she replicated and set the tone of disco entertainment. In the same vein, only worked disco light boom.

In 1988 – when the hard press, multiple calls to the carpet, vzbuchek – not many survived. Amateur came under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Department of Culture, from frivolous Komsomol in the hands of major organs. Groups began to organize, certify, test repertoire. Before the evening was supplied a list of playable songs, which is carefully viewed high command and after adjustment was approved. If required by the line transfer songs, way out cleverly – took jingoistic thing, copied it to the end, and represented the Party workers. Those thoughts instigorates but signed.

In 1989, the beginning of perestroika. Filippitch organized fabulous disco performance and with the legendary DJ Bumblebee (Alexander Pink) conducted on the basis of party games and disco some central channel. Bumblebee then went to the LISS and the project successfully bent, like many post-perestroika case. In the House of Culture Orion Studio class with Sergei Obukhov initiated a disco show, a sort of review of achievements of the Moscow teams.

Simultaneously with Moscow similar rally, but the international scale, arranged in Riga. In the summer of 1989 the team arrived in Latvia from 12 countries. In the category Disco rap guys won first place from Khimki 3h23 to Russian dances danced and sang folk songs with western hits, a second light boom. The jury sat DJs from Europe and America, was fond of while rusish-themed. It was then that many first saw the Western style of play DJ on vinyl. Then it seemed prohibitively steep.

In the same year created a sort of trade union – “Disco-shop.” Up to 1993 on the basis of association arranged screenings skill workers turntables and bobbins, the exchange of experiences, materials. It was like KVN for his. And as an example of the author’s program disco delights Hammer and Sickle with the hit girl from a neighboring district committee.

But here’s Oleg Ojo brings to Russia the first turntables in 1993 (in 1991, vinyl turntables appeared in the disco Red Zone). Passes the first and last session of DJs, now every man for himself, alas!

In 1995, the first of Dj Lantern compatriots bought a DJ set Pioneer.

In 1995 he released his first club CD – “Pilot party” – produced by Dj Vasilych made.

Performer College Graduation Party DJ

•May 14, 2011 • Leave a Comment

Free Consultation With Local College Graduation Party DJ
Web form shortcut for getting a wedding and party DJ!

Larry Smith Performer Springfield MA

Larry the ONE FOR THE SHOW Springfield performer, will be performing at a large college graduation party with 50 Guests guests coming so far. There will be acoustic and amplified music and lots of merrymaking in Shutesbury Sunday night. Can’t wait!

Many of Larry’s performances are around Springfield Mass, but Larry also performs in the surrounding areas Longmeadow, Wilbraham, Agawam, West Springfield, Ludlow, Northampton, Amherst.